Blockchain is a publicly distributed ledger technology consisting of nodes following a specific set of protocols. Each member of the distributed technology network gets access to the ledger. The stored data cannot be modified. This technology provides optimal security to the data making it impossible to hack.

Blockchain technology along with blockchain programming language became popular with the advent of Bitcoin due to the ability provided by this technology to conduct round-the-clock financial transactions away from the gaze of the controlling authorities. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency using blockchain technology.

Blockchain is considered to be a disruptive technology like AI and machine learning. Apart from Bitcoin, it is being used in many other sectors, such as cross-border payments, healthcare, agriculture, and more. However, the most important and popular manifestation of blockchain technology is Bitcoin.

The global value of blockchain technology is expected to reach $20 billion by 2024. The demand for blockchain apps will increase steadily in the coming years, especially in the Bitcoin sector, as companies scramble to hire more blockchain developers.

There are many programming languages for mastering bitcoin: programming the open blockchain. The various programming languages used for developing blockchain apps have been discussed here.

Blockchain Programming Language in 2023 | Top 16 With Preferences


Java, a popular programming language invented in 1995, is widely used to develop Android apps. It is one of the top blockchain programming languages and is widely preferred by developers, especially for developing complex blockchain apps.

Java supports heavy Application Programming Interfaces or API and object-oriented programming. The Java Virtual Machine enables code portability and flexibility. Java also has a large library. All these features make Java highly suitable for blockchain programming.

Developers widely prefer Java for the Ethereum blockchain used in cryptocurrencies. Hyper Ledger, IOTA, and NEM are some popular Java-developed blockchain solutions.


Python is among the best programming language for blockchain. Created in 1991, Python is an open-source language and uses shorter codes that are easier to learn. It supports object-oriented programming. Python is widely used for blockchain development apart from AI and machine learning.

Python has many libraries, plugins, and resources that aid blockchain development. The language is easy to understand, which also helps blockchain developers to focus on coding rather than syntax. Python coding in the blockchain is also very efficient for prototyping.

NEO, Hyperledger Fabric, and STEEM are some popular Python-developed Blockchain solutions.


Solidity was created with blockchain development in mind and is a highly developer-friendly language. Solidity is a programming language influenced by Java, C++, PowerShell, and Python. It is a popular programming language that competes with Ethereum for blockchain development.

Solidity is widely used to develop smart contracts between two parties that run on Ethereum Virtual Machine. Solidity provides access to JavaScript infrastructure, debuggers, and tools. Its static writing feature ensures that the code isn’t compiled until it is free of errors.


PHP is an open-source platform-independent programming language developed in 1994. It is widely used to develop web apps and powers popular platforms such as Facebook, Drupal, and WordPress. PHP is also one of the preferred languages for the swift and easy development of blockchain apps.

PHP is suitable for blockchain development for several reasons: compatibility with multiple operating systems, ease of learning, an in-built database connection module, object-oriented features, and a huge open-source community.


C++ was created in 1985 and is the best programming language for developing cryptocurrencies. Many cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ripple, Stellar, EOS, and Litecoin have been developed using C++.

C++ is a highly preferred language for blockchain development due to function overloading, runtime polymorphism, and multithreading. The object-oriented programming nature and faster execution time compared to Java make C++ highly suited for blockchain development.


JavaScript is widely used for developing apps and games. It is particularly known for adding interactive elements to browsers and net applications. JavaScript has emerged as one of the best and most preferred blockchain programming languages.

JavaScript has numerous blockchain frameworks. The scalability of blockchain apps is enhanced when developed using JavaScript. Swift and easy blockchain development using JavaScript enables quick entry into the market.


Go, or Golang, is a statically typewritten programming language widely used for big data, machine learning, and blockchain programming. It is one of the top coding languages for blockchain solutions.

Go has the best features of Java and Python, such as user-friendliness, scalability, speed, and flexibility, which make it beneficial for blockchain programming. It is also a static language that helps avoid many syntax errors, making blockchain web apps easier.

Hyperledger Fabric and GO-Ethereum are the two most popular blockchain developments of GO.


C# is a popular open-source programming language developed by Microsoft as an alternative to Java. It is replete with features of multiple frameworks such as .NET, SQL, and C. As per an estimate, 5-8 million developers worldwide use C#.

C# is a highly favored blockchain programming language. It is suitable for blockchain development due to features such as open source, easy-to-learn syntax, rich library, ease of writing portable codes across devices, support for a distributed system, and more.

C# is widely used to develop blockchain-powered apps and smart contracts.


Ruby is a programming language developed in the 1990s in Japan. Asian developers particularly use it to create blockchain-based software and platforms. Ruby supports multiple platforms and is a developer-friendly language.

Ruby provides third-party APIs and plugins for blockchain programming. It is also a multi-paradigm language that enables blockchain programming across platforms. In addition, Ruby also allows the integration of the features of other languages into the same blockchain platform.


IBM developed SQL or Structured Query Language to interact more efficiently with databases such as SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, and PostgreSQL. SQL has emerged as a top programming language for developing blockchain applications.

SQL can build highly secure codes that are highly suited for blockchain technology. It is particularly beneficial for developing secure enterprise solutions. The best example of a blockchain solution developed using SQL is Aergo.


Rholang is a relatively new programming language as compared to others. It has a functional approach as opposed to object-oriented programming. This language is also well-suited for blockchain programming.

Rholang has an easy-to-understand syntax and is highly flexible. It is particularly designed to increase the speed of blockchain programming. A functional approach means it sequentially builds an app as a series of functions.

Rholang is widely used for developing complex blockchain solutions such as smart contracts.


Simplicity was developed by Russell O’Connor and was introduced in November 2017. The syntax of this language is Haskell-like which makes coding easy and effective. The mathematical nature of this language also makes it easy to read the code.

Simplicity is a highly reliable blockchain development programming language. It is particularly being used to develop reliable and sophisticated smart contracts besides blockchain solutions to work on Bitcoin and Ethereum Virtual Machine.


Rust is an open-source programming language with a syntax similar to C++. Despite being a new language, it is widely used to develop innovative and secure blockchain solutions. This is because Rust is a multi-paradigm language designed for performance and safety.

Rust enables the creation of open-source blockchain frameworks. It also provides many other benefits for blockchain development, such as memory safety, excellent code optimization, concurrency-based opportunities, and more.

Also Read : How Blockchain Development Companies Can Help Businesses Transform?


Erlang is a general-purpose programming language that developers can consider for building high-end blockchain applications, especially in telecom and banking. Erlang is a suitable alternative to more popular languages for developing cutting-edge blockchain solutions.

Erlang provides several benefits for blockchain development, such as high scalability, extensive facilities for backend development, fault tolerance, and code immutability.


CX is also one of the top programming languages for blockchain development. There is a plethora of benefits that CX provides to blockchain developers.

CX compiles codes faster as compared to C++ and GO. It also has an error control system that enables the developer to detect an error before the alpha stage of the software and rectify it quickly. Other benefits include integration with Open Graphics Library and freedom to use propelled arrays, cuts, and pointers.


Elm is a purely functional domain-specific programming language created to develop web browser-based graphical user interfaces. This language collates with JavaScript and is useful for creating UIs for blockchain apps that run without errors.

Elm can be used for many platforms except Android and iOS.

How Much Does It Cost To Make An App Via Blockchain Programming Language?

The cost incurred to develop a blockchain app depends upon several factors, such as the size of the app, app type, app’s complexity level, hourly rate of the blockchain developer, and the app platform. The average cost ranges between $20,000 to as much as $200,000 or even more. Let’s connect with Moon Technolabs to know the final cost estimation for your app.


The programming languages discussed in this write-up are considered the best vehicles for entry into the blockchain development market. It is pertinent to note that each language has its merits and limitations. Different languages are suited for developing various kinds of blockchain apps. The key is to master the language best suited for your domain of blockchain development.



What programming language does blockchain use?

Many include Java, JavaScript, Python, PHP, C++, and more.


How difficult is blockchain coding?

Proficiency in a minimum of one programming language renders blockchain coding easy.


What is the Ethereum blockchain programming language?

Solidity is the most common programming language for the Ethereum blockchain.
About Author

Jayanti Katariya is the CEO of Moon Technolabs, a fast-growing IT solutions provider, with 18+ years of experience in the industry. Passionate about developing creative apps from a young age, he pursued an engineering degree to further this interest. Under his leadership, Moon Technolabs has helped numerous brands establish their online presence and he has also launched an invoicing software that assists businesses to streamline their financial operations.

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